[402. {405.}1 Upasīva2]

In the Himalayan region,
there’s a mountain named Anoma.
My well-made hermitage [is there],
[with] halls well-constructed of leaves. (1) [3990]

And a river is flowing there,
beautiful, with excellent banks,
[and] along [those] banks3 are growing
many pink and blue lotuses. (2) [3991]

[That] river is flowing back then,
covered with fish and tortoises,
sheatfish,4 pāvusa,5 valaja,6
reed-fish,7 red-fish8 [and] maggura.9 (3) [3992]

Timira [trees] are blooming there,
ashoka,10 khuddamālaka,11
laurel,12 and mountain laurel13 trees
are perfuming my hermitage. (4) [3993]

Winter cherry14 is blooming there,
and forests of Arab jasmine;15
sal16 and salalā17 [trees] are there,
and lots of blooming cchampaka.18 (5) [3994]

Arjuna [trees]19 and hiptage vines,20
and sugarcane21 are blossoming;
silver greywood,22 madhugandhi,23
blossoming in my hermitage. (6) [3995]

Half a league on every side is
covered with bimbijālika,24
golden shower,25 trumpet-flower,26
jasmine,27 also piyaṅguka.28 (7) [3996]

Mātaṅgava and sattali29
trumpet-flower,30 Chinese chaste tree,31
much sage-leaf alangium32 there,
[and] tālakūṭa33 blossoming. (8) [3997]

There is much sāleyyaka34 there,
blossoming in my hermitage.
Many trees are beautiful when
they are bursting into flower.
On every side the scents of that
are wafting through my hermitage. (9-10a-b) [3998]35

Myrobalan36 [and] gooseberry,37
mango,38 rose-apple,39 bahera,40
jujube,41 markingnut,42 [and] bel,43
as well as phārusaka44 fruits, (10c-d, 11a-b) [3999]

wild mangosteen,45 chirauli-nut,46
mahuwa47 and kāsumārī,48
breadfruit49 [and] jak50 [are growing] there,
bananas51 [and] jujube fruits,52 (11c-d, 12a-b) [4000]

large quantities of hog-plum53 there,
as well as vallikāra54 fruits,
citron55 and sapāriya56 [trees]
are blooming in my hermitage. (12c-d, 13a-b) [4001]

Ālaka and isimugga,57
after that lots of moda-fruit;58
all around,59 heavy with ripe fruit,60
are wave-leafed61 and glomerous62 figs. (13c-d, 14a-b) [4002]

Pepper,63 and black peppercorns64 there,
banyan,65 also wood-apple trees,66
a lot of glomerous fig trees,67
kaṇḍapakka and pārī [trees]. (14c-d, 15a-b) [4003]

These and many other trees too
are fruiting in my hermitage.
Also many flowering trees,
flowering in my hermitage. (15c-d, 16a-b) [4004]

Titan arum,68 also bindweed,69
bilāni, takkaḷāni [bulbs],
ālaka and tālaka [too]
are [all] found in my hermitage. (16c-d, 17a-b) [4005]

Close to70 that hermitage of mine,
there was a large natural lake.
[It was] beautiful, with good banks,
cool water, [crystal-]clear water. (17c-d, 18a-b) [4006]

Many pink and blue lotuses
are mixed with white lotuses there;
covered with mandālaka71 blooms,
it’s full of various [good] scents. (18c-d, 19a-b) [4007]

Pink lotuses germinate there;
others, flowering, make pollen.
Many pink lotus buds [and] leaves
[and] pericarps72 float73 [on that lake]. (19c-d, 20a-b) [4008]

Honey flows from the lotus stems74
[and] milk [and] ghee75 from lotus roots.76
On all sides, with the scent of that,
it’s full of various [good] scents. (20c-d, 21a-b) [4009]

White lotuses,77 ambagandhī,
and many nayita are seen;
as befits a natural lake,
there’s a lot of screw-pine78 in bloom. (21c-d, 22a-b) [4010]

Bandhujīva79 in full flower,
sweetly-scented80 setavārī,81
crocodiles82 and alligators83
[and other] fierce beasts84 are born there. (22c-d, 23a-b) [4011]

Many uggāhas85 [and] pythons86
[live] there in [that] natural lake;
sheatfish,87 pāvusa,88 valaja,89
reed-fish,90 red-fish91 [and] maggura.92 (23c-d, 24a-b) [4012]

[It’s] covered with fish and turtles,93
also with small, tailless monkeys;94
pigeons95 and ravi-swans96 [as well],
wild jungle fowl,97 nadīccharas, (24c-d, 25a-b) [4013]

wattled lapwings98 and ruddy geese,99
cchampakas100 as well as pheasants,101
squirrels,102 [also] osprey103 [and] hawks,104
[and] many [birds called] uddhara, (25c-d, 26a-b) [4014]

paddy-birds,105 Ceylon lorikeets,106
crabs107 and many yak-oxen108 [too],
kāreṇiyas109 and tilakas
are [then] residing on that lake. (26c-d, 27a-b) [4015]

Lions and tigers and leopards,
bears110 [and] wolves,111 kara bānā bears,112
monkeys,113 also even centaurs114
are seen inside my hermitage. (27c-d, 28a-b) [4016]

Smelling those [sweetly-perfumed] scents,
feeding myself upon [those] fruits,
drinking perfumed water, I am
living [there] in my hermitage. (28c-d, 29a-b) [4017]

Eṇi-deer115 as well as wild boar,116
spotted deer,117 [also] smaller breeds,118
and aggikas [and] jotikas119
are living in my hermitage. (29c-d, 30a-b) [4018]

Swans120 [and] curlews121 and peacocks122 too,
mynah birds123 and also cuckoos;124
there are many mañjarikas,125
owls126 and poṭṭhasīsas127 there. (30c-d, 31a-b) [4019]

There are goblins,128 also titans,129
many fairies,130 [also] demons,131
garuḷas, also snake-demons,132
living [there] in my hermitage. (31c-d, 32a-b) [4020]

Sages who possess great powers,133
peaceful-hearted [and] attentive,
holding long-spouted waterpots,134
all wearing robes of deer-leather,
wearing braids and [carrying] weights,135
are living in my hermitage. (32c-d, 33) [4021]

Looking but a plough’s length ahead,136
clever [and] living peacefully,
happy if receiving or not,
they’re living in my hermitage. (34) [4022]

Throwing off [their] clothes made of bark,
rattling [their] deer-leather [robes],
supported by [just their] own strength,
they are then flying137 through the sky. (35) [4023]

They are not carrying water,
nor branches nor wood for the fire;
[those things] are supplied by themselves:138
that’s the fruit of a miracle.139 (36) [4024]

Taking a tub made of iron,140
they’re living inside the forest;141
even elephants, great cobras
and lions do not frighten [them]. (37) [4025]

Some would travel to Goyāna,
others to Pubbavideha,
and some to Utturukuru,
depending on142 [just their] own strength;
carrying [their] alms food from there,
they are eating [it] together. (38, 39a-b) [4026]

When all of [those] fierce ascetics,143
[those] neutral ones, were taking off,
the forest is then noisy with
the flapping144 of deer-leather robes. (39c-d, 40a-b) [4027]

Of that sort were those great heroes,
[those] fierce ascetics, my students;
[always] surrounded by them, I
am living in my hermitage. (40c-d, 41a-b) [4028]

Satisfied through [their] own karma,
educated,145 come together,
morally-upright [and] clever,
skillful in the [four] boundless states,146
wishing147 [to boost their] own karma,
they are propitiating me. (41c-d, 42) [4029]

Padumuttara, World-Knower,
Sacrificial Recipient,
recognizing the proper time,148
the Guide approached [my hermitage]. (43) [4030]

Having approached, the Sambuddha,
the Zealous One,149 Clever, the Sage,
the Sambuddha, taking [his] bowl,
approached me [begging] for alms food. (44) [4031]

Spreading out a mat made of grass
[for] the Great Hero who’d approached,
the one whose name was “Best Lotus,”
I showered [him] with sal flowers. (45) [4032]

Having the Sambuddha sit down,
my mind [stirred up] with emotion,150
quickly ascending a mountain,
I brought [some fragrant] aloe wood.151 (46) [4033]

Taking a divinely-scented
jak fruit152 big as a water-jug,153
hoisting it up on [my] shoulder,
I went up to [him], the Leader. (47) [4034]

Giving the fruit to the Buddha,
I anointed [him] with aloe.
Happy, with pleasure in my heart,
I worshipped [him], the Best Buddha. (48) [4035]

Padumuttara, World-Knower,
Sacrificial Recipient,
seated amidst [those great] sages,
[then] spoke these verses [about me]: (49) [4036]

“He who gave me fruit and aloe,
and [also a place] to sit down,
I shall relate details of him;
[all of] you listen to my words: (50) [4037]

In a village or a forest,
atop mountains or inside caves,
recognizing this man’s wishes,154
food will come into existence. (51) [4038]

[Whether] born in the world of gods
or in that of men, this person
will satisfy his retinue
with food and [also] with clothing. (52) [4039]

In whatever womb [he’s] reborn,
[whether] it’s human or divine,
having155 inexhaustible156 food,
this person’s going to transmigrate. (53) [4040]

For thirty thousand aeons he’ll
delight in the world of the gods.
A thousand times he’ll be a king,
a king who turns the wheel [of law]. (54) [4041]

Seventy-one [different] times
he will exercise divine rule,
[and he will have] much local rule,
innumerable by counting. (55) [4042]

In one hundred thousand aeons,
arising in Okkāka’s clan,
the one whose name is Gotama
will be the Teacher in the world. (56) [4043]

Worthy heir to that one’s Dhamma,
Dhamma’s legitimate offspring,
knowing well all the defilements,
he’ll reach nirvana, undefiled.” (57) [4044]

The gain for me was well-received,
which is that I saw the Leader.
Obtaining the three knowledges,
[I have] done what the Buddha taught! (58) [4045]

In a village or a forest,
atop mountains or inside caves,
recognizing what I’m wishing,
food is always coming to157 me. (59) [4046]

My defilements are [now] burnt up;
all [new] existence is destroyed.
Like elephants with broken chains,
I am living without constraint. (60) [4047]

Being in Best Buddha’s presence
was a very good thing for me.
The three knowledges are attained;
[I have] done what the Buddha taught! (61) [4048]

The four analytical modes,
and these eight deliverances,
six special knowledges mastered,
[I have] done what the Buddha taught! (62) [4049]

Thus indeed Venerable Upasīva Thera spoke these verses.

The legend of Upasīva Thera is finished.


  1. Apadāna numbers provided in {fancy brackets} correspond to the BJTS edition, which contains more individual poems than does the PTS edition dictating the main numbering of this translation.

  2. BJTS reads Upasiva, “Extremely Blessed” or “Very Fortunate One,” but Upasīva is a historical monk and PTS follows the spelling of the earlier record of him, the Upasīva­māṇava­pucchchā of SN (v. 1069-1076; sixth sutta of the Parāyanavagga). There, but not in Apadāna, he is said to have been a follower of Bāvarī prior to joining the Buddhists.

  3. PTS reads anūpa-titthe (“on a watery bank”), BJTS reads anupatitthe (and glosses accordingly kuḍā toṭuvala, “on the small bank”)

  4. read pāṭhīna, Silurus Boalis, “a kind of shad” (RD); wikipedia gives “sheatfish,” related to catfish, includes all the siluridae. BJTS glosses peṭiyō

  5. pāvusa, glossed as “large-mouth fish”, cf. pāgusa, patusa, BJTS glosses lūllu

  6. reading valajā with BJTS, which treats it as a type of fish (Sinh. valayō), for PTS jalajā, lit., “water-born”, a generic word for “fish”.

  7. muñja, more common as a kind of reed, also the name of a fish (BJTS glosses moddu), always in dvandva compound with rohita, “red-fish”

  8. rohita, BJTS glosses reheru

  9. reading maggurā with BJTS, which glosses the term as magurō, for PTS vaggula (= vagguli, bat? Or fr. vaggu, beautiful, hence “pretty fish”?)

  10. Jonesia Asoka, Saraca asoca; a large, flowering tree

  11. “little-flowers,” BJTS implies it could be the name of a specific tree or a generic description, “trees with small flowers”

  12. punnāga = Sinhala domba, Alexandrian laurel, Calophyllum inophyllum

  13. giripunnāga

  14. kuṭaja, Nerium antidysenterica (used for diarrhea, as its name implies), aka Arctic Snow, winter cherry, Wrightia antidysenterica, Wrightia zeylanica, nerium zeylanica, Sinhala kelinda

  15. tiṇasūlavanāni = “Arabian jasmine,” Sinhala bōlidda

  16. shorea robusta

  17. PTS salaḷā, BJTS salalā, BJTS Sinh.gloss = hora = “large timber tree yielding rezin and oil, Dipterocarpus zeylanicus (Dipterocarp.)” (Bot. dict.)

  18. The cchampaka (Sinh. sapu) tree is Magnolia champaca, formerly classified as michelia champaca. English names for the tree include Champak, Joy Perfume Tree, Yellow Jade Orchid Tree and Fragrant Himalayan Champaca. It was the Bodhi tree of the seventeenth Buddha of the Buddhavaṃsa, Atthadassi. It has highly fragrant cream to yellowish-colored blossoms.

  19. kakudha (a.k.a. ajjuṇa, Sinhala kumbuk gasa, kubuk, Terminalia arjuna) is an impressively large, shade-giving tree that thrives on the edges of tanks and lakes.

  20. atimutta = atimuttaka? RD: a plant, Gaertnera Racemosa = Hiptage, hiptage benghalensis, stout, high-climbing vine, now invasive species in Florida, scented pink-white flowers, medicinal uses. BJTS glosses Sinh. yohombu (Bot. Dict. = yohombu väla = yon tumba, an annual creeper, Trichodesma zeylanicum).

  21. mahānāmā. Following BJTS Sinhala gloss as uk, sugarcane, Sacchcharum officinarum (Gram.)

  22. asana, Pentaptera tomentosa, = a.k.a. crocodile-bark tree, Indian laurel, silver grey wood, white chuglam. The Bodhi tree of Tissa Buddha. BJTS glosses as piyā gasa = bakmī = Sarcocephalus cordatus (Rubi.)

  23. “honey-scented”

  24. or Bimbajāla, a flowering tree, Sinh. rat karavū, Phyllanthus indicus (Euphorb.), the Bodhi tree of Dhammadassi Buddha

  25. uddālaka = Cassia fistula, Sinh. äsaḷa

  26. pāṭali is Sinh. paḷol, Bignonia suaveolens, sterospermum suaveolens (Bignon.), trumpet-flower tree, the Bodhi Tree of Vipassi Buddha. Cf. #71, #78, #96, #248, #369{372}.

  27. yūthikā = Sinh. sīnidda = jasminum auriculatum

  28. piyaṅgukā. RD: “[cp. Vedic priyangu] 1. panic seed, Panicum Italicum Vv 537; J i.39; PvA 283. Mixed with water and made into a kind of gruel (piyangûdaka) it is used as an emetic J i.419. See also kangu. — 2. a medicinal plant, Priyangu J v.420. BJTS glosses it puvaṅgu, Botanical dictionary = priyaṅgu = ruk gasa, Myristica Hersfieldia (Myris.), “a lofty tree…It produces fragrant flowers and seeds from its trunk.”

  29. BJTS glosses as satpeti däsaman = “hundred-petaled” saman piccchcha mal, a fragrant species of jasmine, Jasminum sambac. Note that at [3432] BJTS says vassika is (regular) däsaman.

  30. pāṭali is Sinh. paḷol, Bignonia suaveolens, sterospermum suaveolens (Bignon.), trumpet-flower tree, the Bodhi Tree of Vipassi Buddha. Cf. #71, #78, #96, #248, #369{372}.

  31. sindhuvārita,Vitex negunda, a.k.a. Horshoe vitex, Five-leaved chaste tree, Sinh. nika

  32. aṅkolaka, aṅkola, Alangium hexapetalum, a.k.a. sage-leaved alangium, Sinh. rukaṅguna

  33. this is the BJTS spelling (no Sinhala gloss on the species). PTS (and BJTS alt.) reads tālakuṭṭhā

  34. BJTS glosses galmal, “flowers growing on the rocks”

  35. BJTS treats this as a six-footed verse, and doing so makes for much more coherent individual verses in the long list of plants which follows (this is true of the present verse, too; feet e-f refer back to a-d. I therefore follow the BJTS reading, and indicate the corresponding PTS verse numbers accordingly.

  36. Sinh. araḷu, myrobalan, black- or chebulic myrobalan; Terminalia chebula. The list of fruits in this verse closely parallels that in TherAp #1, v. 33 [BJTS 168] above, but there the focus is on their flowers, not their fruits.

  37. Sinh. nelli, emblic myrobalan, Indian gooseberry, a.k.a. Malacca tree, or amla; Phyllanthus emblica

  38. amba, Magnifera indica

  39. Sinh. damba, jambu, Syzygium samarangense

  40. vibhīṭaka, Sinh. buḷu, Terminalia bellirica (sic bellerica), beleric myrobalan or bastard myrobalan. Together with myroblan proper (araḷu) and Indian gooseberry (nelli), bahera is one of the three myroblans upon which many Ayurvedic and Sinhala medicines are based; the dried nuts are typically pounded into powder which is then used in oils and other decoctions. Here, on the contrary, the reference is likely to the fresh fruit of these trees, which is also used in medicines and eaten (especially gooseberrry).

  41. kola, Sinh. debara phala, Ziziphus Mauritania, Zizyphus Jujuba (Rham.), Indian jujube or Chinese apple.

  42. bhallātakā, bhallī, badulla = semecarpus anacardium, Sinh. badulu

  43. billā = fruit of Aegle marmelos, Sinh. beli geḍiya, bael, bel, Bengal quince; bilva or vilva tree, = beluvā

  44. a fruit from which a drink is made, Sinh. boraḷu-damunu. BJTS equates it with ugurässa, Flacourtia Ramontchi, sweet lovi lovi, but RD says it is a bitter fruit. Bot. Dictionary says that boraḷu-damunu is a species of Eugenia.

  45. tinduka = timbiri, diospyros embryopteris, a.k.a. Indian persimmon

  46. piyal = buchanania latifolia

  47. madhuka reading madhuk’ ekā; madhuka = mī gasa, bassia latifolia

  48. BJTS glosses as Sinh. ät demaṭa, Bot. Dict: “a small timber tree that bears yellow flowers, Gmelina arborea (Verb.)

  49. labuja = Artocarpus lacucha or incisa; Sinh. del. The fruit of the tree is cooked and eaten as a starchy vegetable.

  50. panasa (Sinh. panā , kos) is the jak-fruit tree, Artocarpus integrifolia (Urti.)

  51. kaḍalī, Sinh. kesel

  52. reading badarī with BJTS, Sinh. gloss is ḍebara (= kola? ). PTS reads cchandarī° (?), alt. mandari (?)

  53. ambāṭakā, RD: “the hog-plum, Spondias Mangifera (a kind of mango), Vin ii.17 (°vana), DA i.271 (°rukkha).” BJTS gloss ämbarälla, ämbärälla, a small, sour, mango-like fruit cooked as a curry.

  54. = vallikā (?), Sinh. hīrässa, sivräs, sivrässa, Bot. Dict.: “a climbing plant edible when tender, having four winged stems and bearing red berries, Vitis quadrangularis (Ampel.)” Cf. RD vallī, s.v., “a climbing plant, a creeper, Vin iii.144; J v.37; vi.536; VvA 147, 335 (here as a root?).”

  55. reading bījapura° (Sinh. gloss lapnāraṅga [= lapnāram], Bot. Dict. citron, Citrus medica) with BJTS for PTS viṭapā, “having branches,” a generic word for “tree”

  56. this is the BJTS reading; PTS reads sapākā (RD: “dog-cooker, an outcaste”)

  57. BJTS glosses vanamuŋ (jungle/wild mung)

  58. this is the BJTS reading, for PTS cchora°. I don’t find either term in the dictionaries.

  59. following BJTS reading of avaṭā (hātpasa, all around)

  60. pakkabharitā

  61. pilakkhā, the wave-leaved or wave-leafed fig tree, Ficus infectoria; (Bot. Dict. gives Ficus Arnottiana (Urti.)), Sinh. pulila

  62. udumbara, the glomerous fig tree, Ficus Glomerata, Sinh. dimbul

  63. pipphalī, Sinh. pippali mūl, the root of the long pepper, Piper longum, used in medicines.

  64. maricchā, black pepper, allowed as medicine for the monks,

  65. nigrodhā = Sinh. nuga, RD: the banyan or Indian fig-tree, Ficus Indica; Bot. dict.: milky fig tree, Ficus altissima (Urti.)

  66. kapitthanā = kapittha, kapiṭṭha (already mentioned in v. 2 [3759] above), Feronia elephantum, Sinh. divul

  67. udumbara, the glomerous fig tree, Ficus Glomerata, Sinh. dimbul

  68. RD equates āluva with ālupa or āluka, “edible root of Amorphophallus CChampanulatus,” fr. Skt. ālu, āluka: a bulbous plant, Radix Globosa Esculenta or Amorphophallus (Kern), Arum CChampanulatum (Hardy), cognate with alium, good possibility is amorphophallus titanum, “titan arum”

  69. kalamba, RD draws attention to Skt. kalambika, kalambuka = convulvulus repens, bindweed, but there are other possibilities including a tree menispermum calumba (but its fruits are poisonous/only used in controlled medical usages, unlikely?) and (following BJTS Sinh. gloss here) Anthocephalus Cadamba (Rub.), Sinh. kalamba

  70. avidūre, lit., “not far from”

  71. RD says this is a water-plant, a kind of lotus, referencing J iv.539; vi.47, 279, 564. Here BJTS glosses it as madāra tree [mountain-ebony, Bauhinia purpurea (Legum.)] and says the blossoms fell into the water from overhanging trees. Elsewhere BJTS gives different glosses: BJTS gloss at [324] is “a water-born plant named Mandālā”. At [171] BJTS Sinh. gloss is taḍāgayangen, “from the moss,” following its reading of [170] “well fixed [in the mosses]”. Bot. Dict. taḍāga = sevela. At [4231], [4233], [4313], [6332] the (or a) BJTS gloss is helmällen, heḷmäli = edible white water-lily, Nymphaea Lotus.

  72. paduma-kiṇṇikā

  73. tiṭṭhanti, lit., “stand,” “remain”

  74. bhisamhā

  75. sappi

  76. muḷālibhi

  77. kumudā

  78. ketakā, Pandanus odoratissima, Sinhala väṭakē or väṭakeyiyā.

  79. Sinhala banduvada, Latin pentapetes phoenicea

  80. sugandhikā, lit., “good-scented”

  81. “white-water,” RD = name of a plant or tree. BJTS gives no Sinhala equivalent.

  82. kumbhīlā

  83. suṃsumārā, lit., “child-killing,” is actually a different sort of crocodile, but to avoid the inevitable redundancy in English I have chosen to translate the term “alligator,” a species not actually found in this region.

  84. gahakā, lit., “seizers.” BJTS glosses this as a third type of crocodile (gäṭa-kimbulō), underlining (as does my translation here) the main point that fierce water-beasts are born there.

  85. uggāhaka, fr. ogāhati, ogāhana, plunging? = watersnakes? PTS spells the term ogaha (BJTS oguha) above, Sariputta-apadāna v. 19 = BJTS [158]

  86. ajagarā. RD says “a large snake…a Boa Constrictor”

  87. read pāṭhīna, Silurus Boalis, “a kind of shad” (RD); wikipedia gives “sheatfish,” related to catfish, includes all the siluridae. BJTS glosses peṭiyō

  88. pāvusa, glossed as “large-mouth fish”, cf. pāgusa, patusa, BJTS glosses lūllu

  89. reading valajā with BJTS, which treats it as a type of fish (Sinh. valayō), for PTS jalajā, lit., “water-born”, a generic word for “fish”.

  90. muñja, more common as a kind of reed, also the name of a fish (BJTS glosses moddu), always in dvandva compound with rohita, “red-fish”

  91. rohita, BJTS glosses reheru

  92. reading maggurā with BJTS, which glosses the term as magurō, for PTS vaggula (= vagguli, bat? Or fr. vaggu, beautiful, hence “pretty fish”?)

  93. or tortoises, macchcha-kacchchapa-sañcchhannā

  94. reading pampaṭakehi with BJTS for PTS gives pappaṭakehi. BJTS Sinhala gloss huṇapupuḷangen (Sorata = uṇahapuḷu, “a small creature belonging to the vānara [monkey, ape] group”); a tailless monkey. Its high-pitched cry famously (and frighteningly) resembles that of a cobra. These monkeys presumably “cover” the lake in the trees that overhang it.

  95. parevatā

  96. ravihaŋsā

  97. reading kukutthā with BJTS, which here glosses “that type of bird” but in gloss on [160] gives Sinh. valikukuḷō; PTS read kutthakā

  98. reading dindibhā with BJTS (PTS: tiṭibhā), Sinh. gloss kirallu, kiraḷā = red-wattled or yellow-wattled lapwing. PSI dictionary gives “bluejay” (doubtful)

  99. cchakkavākā, BJTS Sinh. gloss sakvālihiṇiyō = cchakravākayā, an aquatic bird, brahminy goose, btahmany kite, haliastur indus

  100. BJTS reads cchampakā, without an explanation. I follow PTS here, though I understand the term on the basis of the BJTS gloss

  101. jīvajīva, Sinh-Eng dict: äṭikukuḷa

  102. kalandakā, Sinh. gloss lehenu, pl. of lēnā

  103. ukkusa, RD. gives “osprey,” Sinh. gloss “the type of kabarässa [osprey] named “Ukkusa””.

  104. senakā = sena, RD. “hawk”. SInh. gloss “the type of ukussa [hawk] named “Senaka””

  105. koṭṭhakā, identification from RD, s.v.

  106. reading sukapotā with BJTS for PTS sukkapotā (alt. suggapotā). BJTS takes sukapotā as suvapota, Sinh. gloss (on v. [160], above) = girāmalittō (= girāmaliccchchiyā), Ceylon lorikeet, loriculus indicus

  107. kuḷīrā, Sinh. gloss kakuḷuvō

  108. cchamarā

  109. this is the BJTS reading for PTS kāreriyo

  110. acchcha°, Sinh. gloss valassu

  111. koka, etymological cousin of vāka, vṛka, above, see RD

  112. taracchchā, Sinh. gloss kara bānā (‘submissive” “bent over”) valassu, Note BJTS omits the second mention of “wolves” so may be taking koka in compound with taracchchā (i.e., kokataracchchā), in specifying this particular type of bear (cf. Sorata, kara baāna valasā, s.v.)

  113. vānarā

  114. kinnarā

  115. reading enimigā with BJTS for PTS enī migā (“those deer/beasts”). PSI dict. defines eṇi as “a type of antelope” (Sinh. muva vargayak, “a type of deer”); RD, eṇi, s.v.: “a kind of antelope,” “°miga, the eṇi deer”

  116. varāhā, Sinh. gloss hūrō = ūrō

  117. pasada, Sinh. gloss titmuvō, pl. of titmuvā, spotted deer, axis maculatus

  118. khuddarūpakā, lit., “those that have small bodies” (in comparison with the three beasts already named, according to BJTS Sinh. gloss)

  119. BJTS treats these as types of animals (sattvayō) without identifying them. Aggika means “one who worships the fire,” and jotika could be taken as people concerned with “illuminating” (workers who light lamps? some other sort of worshippers, say of the sun?); thus it is possible that these should be read as referring to two types of people living in the hermitage, rather than additional wild animals.

  120. haŋsā

  121. koñcchā, Sinh. kosvā lihiṇiyō

  122. mayurā

  123. reading °sālikā with BJTS for PTS °sahitā. Sāḷlka (Skt. śārika) = Sinh. säḷalihiṇiyō, Indian mynah birds

  124. kokilā

  125. the term means “flower-stalk,” but I follow BJTS in treating it as the name of another type of creature.

  126. kosikā= kosiya, owl, Sinh. gloss bakmunuṇō

  127. BJTS treats this as a type of bird

  128. pisācchā

  129. dānavā

  130. kumbhaṇḍā

  131. rakkhasā = rākṣasā

  132. pannagā

  133. mahānubhāvā isayo

  134. kamaṇḍalu-dharā. This particular vessel is a distinctive mark of non-Buddhist ascetics.

  135. jaṭā-bhāra-bharita, lit., “filled with braided top-knots and weights/heavy loads”.

  136. yugamattañ ccha pekkhantā, lit., “looking ahead the extent of a plough,” i.e., just a little, keeping their eyes on the ground in front of them

  137. gacchchanti, lit., “going”

  138. reading sayañ ccha upasampannā with BJTS for PTS ayam ccha upasampanno (“and this is supplied”

  139. pāṭihīrass’ idaŋ phalaŋ

  140. lohadoṇiŋ gahetvāna

  141. vanamajjhe, lit., “in the middle of the forest”

  142. PTS read apassitā, BJTS reads avassitā; the terms are synonymous, and interchangeable.

  143. reading uggatejāna with BJTS for PTS uggatejana

  144. °saddena, lit., “with the sound”

  145. or “trained:” vinītā

  146. appamaññāsu kovidā, that is, skilled in the practice of “the godly states” (brahmavihārā), namely loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity.

  147. reading abhilāsino with BJTS (and PTS alt.) for PTS abhilābhino, “obtaining”

  148. samayaŋ saŋviditvāna

  149. ātāpī, lit., “burning”

  150. saŋviggamānaso

  151. agalum, Sinh. agil, agaru, aguru

  152. reading panasaṃ devagandhikaṃ with BJTS for PTS vansaṇḍe va gandhikaŋ (“scented in the forest grove”)

  153. or “as large as an elephant’s frontal lobe:” kumbhamattaŋ

  154. cchittaŋ, lit., “thoughts” or “mind”

  155. lit., “having become one who has”

  156. lit., “unshaken” “imperturbable”

  157. lit., “coming into existence for”