[409. {412.}1 Ekachattiya2]

On CChandabhāgā River’s bank,
I had a well-made hermitage.
It was strewn with very white sand,
[and] furnished with halls made of leaves. (1) [4299]

The river [there] was beautiful,
with flat banks [and] good bathing-fords.
It was full of fish and turtles;
crocodiles resorted [to it]. (2) [4300]

[There were] bears, peacocks and leopards,
Indian3 cuckoos and mynah birds;
always chirping and growling,4 they’re
beautifying my hermitage. (3) [4301]

Cuckoos5 with their lovely voices
and swans6 with their honey-sweet tones
are [always] singing their songs7 there,
beautifying my hermitage. (4) [4302]

Lions, tigers and wild boars [too],
wolves,8 [more] wolves,9 kara bānā bears,10
roar11 even on bad mountain roads,12
beautifying my hermitage. (5) [4303]

Eṇi-deer13 and sarabha-deer,14
jackals15 and many hogs16 [as well],
cry17 even on bad mountain roads,18
beautifying my hermitage. (6) [4304]

Golden shower19 and champak [trees],20
trumpet-flower,21 Chinese chaste trees,22
hiptage23 vines and ashoka trees24
are blooming in my hermitage. (7) [4305]

Sage-leaf alangium,25 jasmine,26
sattali,27 bimbijālika,28
kaṇṇikā and dinner-plate trees29
are blooming in my hermitage. (8) [4306]

Ironwood,30 sal31 and salalā,32
white lotuses in bloom are here;
wafting divine fragrances, they’re
beautifying my hermitage. (9) [4307]

Arjuna33 and silver greywood,34
flowering sugarcane35 is here,
sal36 and kaṅgu37-flowers [too, are]
beautifying my hermitage. (10) [4308]

Mango,38 rose-apple,39 coral-bean
tree,40 neem,41 and sāla-kalyāṇi,42
wafting divine fragrances are
beautifying my hermitage. (11) [4309]

Ashoka43 and wood-apple44 [trees],
blooming bhaginimāla here,
wafting divine fragrances are
beautifying my hermitage. (12) [4310]

Kadam45 and banana46 [trees] and
isimugga47 are planted [there].
They bear fruit continuously,
beautifying my hermitage. (13) [4311]

Myrobalan48 [and] gooseberry,49
mango,50 rose-apple,51 bahera,52
jujube,53 markingnut,54 bel55
are fruiting in my hermitage. (14) [4312]

Near [the hermitage] there’s a pond,
with good bathing-fords, beautiful,
covered with mandālaka blooms56
and with pink and blue lotuses.57 (15) [4313]

Pink lotuses germinate there;
others, flowering, make pollen.
Kaṇṇika trees with fallen leaves58
are blooming in my hermitage. (16) [4314]

Sheatfish,59 [also] pāvusa60 fish,
valaja,61 reed-fish62 [and] red-fish63
are swimming64 in the clear water,
beautifying my hermitage. (17) [4315]

Shrubs like nayita, ambagandhi,
and screw-pine,65 suited [to water],
wafting divine fragrances are
beautifying my hermitage. (18) [4316]

Honey is flowing from the roots
[and] milk [and] oil66 [flow] from the stems;
wafting divine fragrances, they’re
beautifying my hermitage. (19) [4317]

The sand that’s there is beautiful,
strewn about beside the water.67
Young buds68 are69 [always] blossoming,
beautifying my hermitage. (20) [4318]

Those bearing weights of matted hair,70
who wear deer-leather outer robes,
dressed in garments made of bark, are
beautifying my hermitage. (21) [4319]

Looking but a plough’s length ahead,71
clever [and] living peacefully,
not looking to indulge72 in lust,
they’re living in my hermitage. (22) [4320]

With nails and armpit hair grown long,
muck in [their] teeth, heads [soiled] with dirt,
all dressed in muddy dirt-smeared robes,73
they’re living in my hermitage. (23) [4321]

[Six] special knowledge-perfecters,74
they [all] can travel in the air.
They’re rising up into the sky,
beautifying my hermitage. (24) [4322]

Surrounded by those students, I
am living in the forest then.
I do not know the day from night,
always doing meditation.75 (25) [4323]

The Buddha76 in that period
was Atthadassi, the Great Sage.
Doing away with the darkness,
the Leader of the World arose. (26) [4324]

At that time a certain student
arrived [there] at my hermitage,77
wanting to ask for secret spells,78
the six branches, [reading of] marks. (27) [4325]

“A Buddha’s79 risen in the world,
the Great Sage [named] Atthadassi;
explaining the Four Noble Truths,
he’s declaring the deathless path.” (28) [4326]

Thrilled, [my] hair on end in delight,80
hoping to enter81 the Teaching,
going out from the hermitage,
I spoke these words [to my students]: (29) [4327]

“A Buddha’s risen in the world,
Bearing the Thirty-two Great Marks.
Come, all of you, let us [now] go
into the Great Sambuddha’s midst.” (30) [4328]

They [all then] followed [my] advice,
perfected in the great Teaching.
Seekers of ultimate meaning,
they agreed, saying, “Excellent!” (31) [4329]

Those bearing weights of matted hair,82
wearing deer-leather outer robes,
searching for ultimate meaning,
then departed from the forest. (32) [4330]

The Buddha83 in that period
was Atthadassi, of Great Fame.
Explaining the Four Noble Truths,
he’s declaring the deathless path. (33) [4331]

Taking a white umbrella, I
carried it for the Best Buddha.
Carrying it for one [whole] day,
I [then] worshipped the Best Buddha. (34) [4332]

Atthadassi, the Blessed One,
the World’s Best One, the Bull of Men,
seated in the monks’ Assembly,
spoke these verses [about me then]: (35) [4333]

“Who bore this umbrella for me,
[feeling well-]pleased by his own hands,
I shall relate details of him:
[all of] you listen to my words: (36) [4334]

When[ever] this one is reborn,
[whether] as a god or human,
umbrellas84 will be borne for him:
the fruit of giving umbrellas. (37) [4335]

For seventy-seven aeons
he’ll delight in the world of gods.
A thousand times he’ll be a king,
a king who turns the wheel [of law]. (38) [4336]

Seventy-seven times as well,
he will exercise divine rule,
[and there will be] much local rule,
innumerable by counting. (39) [4337]

Eighteen hundred aeons [from now,]
Gotama, Bull of the Śākyas,
doing away with the darkness,
will arise, the One with [Five] Eyes. (40) [4338]

Worthy heir to that one’s Dhamma,
Dhamma’s legitimate offspring,
knowing well all the defilements,
he’ll reach nirvana, undefiled.” (41) [4339]

Since I was that karma-doer,
bearing the Buddha’s umbrella,
[right] up to now I do not know
a white umbrella not carried. (42) [4340]

This is the final time for me;
[my] last rebirth is proceeding;85
today umbrella-carrying
is happening all of the time. (43) [4341]

O! My karma was well-done for
Atthadassi, the Neutral One.
All defilements are exhausted;
now there will be no more rebirth. (44) [4342]

My defilements are [now] burnt up;
all [new] existence is destroyed.
Like elephants with broken chains,
I am living without constraint. (45) [4343]

Being in Best Buddha’s presence
was a very good thing for me.
The three knowledges are attained;
[I have] done what the Buddha taught! (46) [4344]

The four analytical modes,
and these eight deliverances,
six special knowledges mastered,
[I have] done what the Buddha taught! (47) [4345]

Thus indeed Venerable Ekachattiya Thera spoke these verses.

The legend of Ekachattiya Thera is finished.


  1. Apadāna numbers provided in {fancy brackets} correspond to the BJTS edition, which contains more individual poems than does the PTS edition dictating the main numbering of this translation.

  2. “One Umbrella-er”

  3. pronounce as two syllables for chanting, to keep the meter

  4. kujanti, lit., “they are making [their animal] sounds”

  5. kokilā

  6. haŋsā

  7. abhikūjanti

  8. vakā, Sinh. gloss vṛkayō, cognate with “wolf”

  9. koka°, etymological cousin of vāka, vṛka, above, see RD

  10. °taracchchayo, BJTS °taracchchakā, Sinh. gloss kara bānā (‘submissive” “bent over”) valassu,

  11. nādenti, lit., “make sounds”

  12. lit., “on a bad mountain road”

  13. reading enimigā with BJTS for PTS enī migā (“those deer/beasts”). PSI dict. defines eṇi as “a type of antelope” (Sinh. muva vargayak, “a type of deer”); RD, eṇi, s.v.: “a kind of antelope,” “°miga, the eṇi deer”

  14. sarabhā, RD “a type of deer”

  15. bheraṇḍakā, Sinh. gloss sivallu, pl. of sivalā, hivalā

  16. sūkarā

  17. nādenti, lit., “make sounds”

  18. lit., “on a bad mountain road”

  19. Uddālaka = Cassia fistula, Sinh. äsaḷa

  20. the cchampaka (Sinh. sapu) tree is Magnolia champaca, formerly classified as michelia champaca. English names for the tree include Champak, Joy Perfume Tree, Yellow Jade Orchid Tree and Fragrant Himalayan Champaca. It was the Bodhi tree of the seventeenth Buddha of the Buddhavaṃsa, Atthadassi. It has highly fragrant cream to yellowish-colored blossoms.

  21. pāṭali, Sinh. paḷol, Bignonia suaveolens, sterospermum suaveolens (Bignon.), trumpet-flower tree, the Bodhi Tree of Vipassi Buddha.

  22. sindhuvārita,Vitex negundo, a.k.a. Horshoe vitex, Five-leaved chaste tree

  23. atimutta = atimuttaka? RD: a plant, Gaertnera Racemosa = Hiptage, hiptage benghalensis, stout, high-climbing vine, now invasive species in Florida, scented pink-white flowers, medicinal uses. BJTS glosses Sinh. yohombu (Bot. Dict. = yohombu väla = yon tumba, an annual creeper, Trichodesma zeylanicum).

  24. Jonesia Asoka, Saraca asoca, Sinh. diyaratmal

  25. aṅkolaka, aṅkola, Alangium hexapetalum, a.k.a. sage-leaved alangium, Sinh. rukaṅguna

  26. yūthikā = Sinh. sīnidda = jasminum auriculatum

  27. BJTS glosses as satpeti däsaman = “hundred-petaled” saman piccchcha mal, a fragrant species of jasmine, Jasminum sambac. Note that at [3432] BJTS says vassika is (regular) däsaman.

  28. or Bimbajāla, a flowering tree, Sinh. rat karavū, Phyllanthus indicus (Euphorb.), the Bodhi tree of Dhammadassi Buddha

  29. kaṇṇikāra, kaṇikāra = Sinhala kinihiriya, Pterospermum acerifolium, produces a brilliant mass of yellow flowers; Engl. a.k.a. karnikar, bayur tree, maple-leaf bayur, caniyar (now archaic?), dinner-plate tree; Bodhi tree of Siddhattha Buddha.

  30. nāga = Sinhala , ironwood, Mesua Ferrea Linn, Bodhi tree of Mangala, Sumana, Revata, Sobhita buddhas; national tree of Sri Lanka. It has brilliant, fragrant white flowers containing four petals each, as well as a red fruit eaten by birds.

  31. sālā, shorea robusta

  32. PTS salaḷā, BJTS saḷalā, BJTS Sinh.gloss = hora = “large timber tree yielding rezin and oil, Dipterocarpus zeylanicus (Dipterocarp.)” (Bot. dict.). RD says this is a tree with fragrant blossoms (which was the Bodhi Tree of Padumuttara Buddha, cf. above, #177, v. 1 [2133]). RD notes references to this tree atJ v.420; Bu ii.51= J i.13; Vv 355; VvA 162; Miln 338; M ii.184, and says it is Pinus Longiflis (now more commonly Pinus Longifolia), Indian Pine, indigenous to northern India, Pakistan, Himalayas, bearing brilliant clustered flowers in blue and other colors, with edible seeds.

  33. Ajjuna (a.k.a. kakudha, Sinhala kumbuk gasa, kubuk, Terminalia arjuna) is an impressively large, shade-giving tree that thrives on the edges of tanks and lakes.

  34. asana, Pentaptera tomentosa = a.k.a. crocodile-bark tree, Indian Laurel, silver grey wood, white chuglam. The Bodhi tree of Tissa Buddha. BJTS glosses as piyā gasa = bakmī = Sarcocephalus cordatus (Rubi.)

  35. mahānāmā. Following BJTS Sinhala gloss as uk, sugarcane, Sacchcharum officinarum (Gram.)

  36. sālā, shorea robusta

  37. BJTS Sinhala gloss = puwaṅgu = rukgasa, Bot. Dict. “C. En [Ceylon endemic], a lofty tree, Myristica Horsfieldia (Myris.). It produces fragrant flowers and seeds from its trunk”

  38. ambā, Magnifera indica

  39. jambū, Sinh. damba, jambu, Syzygium samarangense

  40. tilaka, BJTS glosses as madaṭa cf. botanical dictionary = madaṭiya, a tree which yields false yellow sandalwood, and seeds that are used as beads and a jeweler’s weight of about 1.25 troy ounce, adenanthera pavonina, coral bean tree a.k.a. Saga, Sagaseed tree, Red-bead tree, kolkriki

  41. reading nimbā with BJTS (and PTS alt) for PTS nīpā, yellow cheesewood. Nimba (a.k.a. kosambha) is the neem or margosa tree, Azadirachta indica

  42. BJTS gloss sal-kalaṇa, “beautiful sal

  43. asokā, Jonesia Asoka, Saraca asoca. Here BJTS glosses hō-palu, Bot Dict the name of several plants

  44. kapitthā, Feronia elephantum, Sinh. divul, givul

  45. kadamba (Sinh. koḷom) is Nauclea cordifolia = Neolamarckia cadamba, with orange-colored, fragrant blossoms

  46. kaḍalī, Sinh. kesel

  47. BJTS glosses vanamuŋ (jungle/wild mung) above; here the gloss is “the variety of grain called ṛṣimudga (khodahamu)”

  48. harītakā, Sinh. araḷu, myrobalan, black- or chebulic myrobalan; Terminalia chebula. The list of fruits in this verse closely parallels that in TherAp #1, v. 33 [BJTS 168] above, but there the focus is on their flowers, not their fruits.

  49. āmalakā, Sinh. nelli, emblic myrobalan, Indian gooseberry, a.k.a. Malacca tree, or amla; Phyllanthus emblica

  50. ambā, Magnifera indica

  51. jamnū, Sinh. damba, jambu, Syzygium samarangense

  52. vibhīṭakā, Sinh. buḷu, Terminalia bellirica (sic bellerica), beleric myrobalan or bastard myrobalan. Together with myroblan proper (araḷu) and Indian gooseberry (nelli), bahera is one of the three myroblans upon which many Ayurvedic and Sinhala medicines are based; the dried nuts are typically pounded into powder which is then used in oils and other decoctions. Here, on the contrary, the reference is likely to the fresh fruit of these trees, which is also used in medicines and eaten (especially gooseberrry).

  53. kola, Sinh. debara phala, Ziziphus Mauritania, Zyzyphus Jujuba, Indian jujube or Chinese apple.

  54. bhallātakā, bhallī, badulla = semecarpus anacardium, Sinh. badulu

  55. bellā, billaŋ = Aegle marmelos, Sinh. beli geḍiya, bael, bel, Bengal quince; bilva or vilva tree; also billā, beluvā

  56. RD says this is a water-plant, a kind of lotus, referencing J iv.539; vi.47, 279, 564. Here BJTS glosses helmällen nohot diyakandarayen, “if not helmälla then diyakandara.” Helmälla = heḷmäli. This is also the gloss at [4231] andt [4313]; at [6332] the gloss is a straightforward helmäli = edible white water-lily, Nymphaea Lotus. But elsewhere BJTS gives different glosses: at [4007] BJTS glosses it as madāra tree [mountain-ebony, Bauhinia purpurea (Legum.)] and says the blossoms fell into the water from overhanging trees. BJTS gloss at [324] is “a water-born plant named Mandālā”. At [171] BJTS Sinh. gloss is taḍāgayangen, “from the moss,” following its reading of [170] “well fixed [in the mosses]”. Bot. Dict. taḍāga = sevela.

  57. reading padumuppalakehi ccha with BJTS for PTS padumapphalakehi ccha (“and with pink lotuses and fruit” or “and with pink lotus fruits”.

  58. opatta-kaṇṇikā

  59. read pāṭhīna, Silurus Boalis, “a kind of shad” (RD); wikipedia gives “sheatfish,” related to catfish, includes all the siluridae. BJTS glosses peṭiyō

  60. pāvusa, glossed as “large-mouth fish”, cf. pāgusa, patusa, BJTS glosses lūllu

  61. reading valajā with BJTS, which treats it as a type of fish (Sinh. valayō), for PTS jalajā, lit., “water-born”, a generic word for “fish”.

  62. muñja, more common as a kind of reed, also the name of a fish (BJTS glosses moddu), always in dvandva compound with rohita, “red-fish”

  63. rohita, BJTS glosses reheru

  64. viccharaŋ, moving around, traveling about

  65. ketaka, Pandanus odoratissima, Sinhala väṭakē or väṭakeyiyā.

  66. sappi, lit., ghee, clarified butter (gī tel)

  67. jalasevitā, lit., “associating with water” “resorting to water”. Perhaps, “mixed with the water”? I take the meaning to be that the [white] sand is beautiful in juxtaposition with the [blue, clear] water.

  68. reading opupphā with BJTS (and PTS alt.) for PTS opaṭṭā, for opattā (“with fallen leaves”)?

  69. santi. BJTS reads senti (“are lying down” “are sleeping” “are behaving”)

  70. jaṭābhārabharitā (PTS), jaṭābhārena bharitā (BJTS)

  71. yugamattañ ccha pekkhantā, lit., “looking ahead the extent of a plough,” i.e., just a little, keeping their eyes on the ground in front of them

  72. reading kāmabhoge anapekhā with BJTS (and PTS alt.) for PTS kāmagedhe anapekhā, “not looking at craving lust”

  73. rajojalladharā, cf. above [4175], especially the note, and cf. the long note on [4174].

  74. abhiññāpāramīpattā, lit., “attainers of perfection of the special knowledges”

  75. sadā jhānasamappito,lit., “always endowed with meditative states or trances (jhānas)

  76. lit., “the Blessed One”

  77. lit., “came into my presence”

  78. lit., “wanting to ask for the mantras”

  79. reading Buddho with BJTS for the obvious typo in PTS, Būddho

  80. tuṭṭhahaṭṭho, horripilating with delight

  81. lit., “hoping to go into,” °antaragatāsayo

  82. jaṭābhārabharitā (PTS), jaṭābhārena bharitā (BJTS)

  83. lit., “the Blessed One”

  84. lit., “umbrella”

  85. ccharimo vattate bhavo